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Are Dental X-Rays Safe? All About X-Ray Radiation

Are Dental X-Rays Safe All About X-Ray Radiation
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Have you ever wondered if dental X-rays are really safe? Well, you’re not alone. Every time I have to get X-rays at the dentist, I find it incredibly unnerving to be asked to wear a lead vest and thyroid collar. I know these precautions are necessary, but it still makes me wonder how safe X-rays really are and just how much radiation are we actually exposed to during the procedure?

In this guide, I’ll be discussing how dental X-rays function and the kind of radiation they emit. I’ll also explore the potential health consequences and unique considerations for expecting mothers. So, let’s dive right in and explore the world of dental X-rays together.

The Importance of Dental X-Rays in Dentistry

First things first, why do dentists even use X-rays? Well, dental X-rays are a crucial part of maintaining our oral health. They help dentists spot problems that might not be visible during a regular checkup. X-rays can reveal hidden issues like tooth decay between teeth, gum disease, impacted teeth, and even cysts or tumors. By catching these problems early, dental professionals can provide the right treatment and save us from painful complications down the line. So, it’s clear that dental X-rays are essential, but what are the different types available?

Different Types of Dental X-Rays

Dentists use various types of X-rays to get a complete picture of our oral health. Let’s take a quick look at some of the most common ones:

  • Bitewing X-rays: Ever been asked to bite down on a little piece of plastic during a dental appointment? That’s a bitewing X-ray. These X-rays focus on the crowns of our teeth and help detect cavities between them.
  • Periapical X-rays: These X-rays show the entire tooth, from the crown to the root. They’re great for spotting issues with the tooth’s root or surrounding bone structure.
  • Panoramic X-rays: Like a panorama of our mouths, these X-rays give dentists a full view of our upper and lower jaws, including all our teeth and the jaw joints. They’re helpful for detecting impacted wisdom teeth or jaw abnormalities.
  • Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT): This advanced imaging technique creates 3D images of our teeth, soft tissues, and bones. Dentists use CBCT to plan complex procedures like dental implant placement or orthodontic treatments.

Now that we’ve covered the basics, let’s talk a bit about how X-rays work.

How Dental X-Rays Work

X-rays use a type of ionizing radiation that has a short wavelength and can easily penetrate most soft tissues. This makes them ideal for creating images of structures inside the body, especially bones. If you’re interested in learning more about the history and science behind X-rays, the video below is a great watch.

With most dental X-rays, the dentist will place a film inside your mouth and ask you to bite down on it. Then, a machine on the outside of your face will be positioned at the desired angle to take the X-ray image. The machine will release a blast of X-rays, which will pass through the skin and reach the teeth. Since teeth are denser than soft tissues, they will absorb more of the X-rays.

After the X-ray, an image will be left on the film inside your mouth. In the image, your teeth will appear darker than the surrounding soft tissues, simply because they absorbed more of the X-rays. Any abnormalities such as fillings, cavities, tumors, and so on will also appear darker than healthy teeth because they absorb even more X-rays.

A single X-ray is generally not enough for a dentist to fully evaluate a patient’s oral health. That’s why they often take images from a few different angles to get a complete picture of what’s going on inside the mouth.

Having multiple X-rays enables dentists to identify and evaluate a range of dental issues. They can examine old dental work, check for new cavities, spot problem areas, and identify impacted wisdom teeth. The American Dental Association recommends that healthy adults should have X-rays taken every two to three years, while children and people with pre-existing dental problems may need them more frequently.

Understanding Radiation

Did you know that we’re exposed to small amounts of radiation every day? Radiation comes from various sources, both natural and man-made. Here’s a quick overview of some common radiation sources:

  • Cosmic radiation: This comes from outer space and is absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere. The higher up you are, the more cosmic radiation you’re exposed to – think of airplane flights, for example.
  • Terrestrial radiation: The Earth itself contains radioactive materials that emit radiation. This can be found in soil, rocks, and even in our homes, depending on the building materials used.
  • Internal radiation: We also have small amounts of radioactive materials in our bodies that contribute to our daily radiation exposure.
  • Man-made sources: In addition to dental X-rays, other man-made sources of radiation include medical procedures (like CT scans), occupational exposure (for those working in certain industries), and even household items like smoke detectors.

How Much Radiation Is In a Dental X-Ray?

Are Dental X-Rays Safe

So we know dental X-rays are important for our oral health, but what about the risks involved? Let’s break down the concerns surrounding radiation exposure and its effects on our bodies.

Dental X-rays use ionizing radiation to create images of our teeth and jaws. While radiation may sound scary, it’s important to remember that we’re exposed to small amounts of natural radiation every day. That said, it’s true that excessive exposure to radiation can be harmful. But how does the radiation from dental X-rays stack up?

In order to answer the question of whether dental X-rays are safe, we need to understand the different types of radiation. X-rays fall between ultraviolet light and gamma rays on the electromagnetic spectrum, and they have enough power to cause atoms to split, which can lead to health problems. 

Dental X-rays require a low dose of radiation, depending on the type of X-ray taken. Radiation exposure is measured in units called sieverts (Sv). Extraoral X-rays, which do not require the film to be placed inside the mouth, produce around .014mSv, while intraoral X-rays, such as a standard bitewing, produce about .008mSv. 

By comparison, a full-body CT scan results in 10.6mSv of exposure, and an abdomen x-ray produces around 1mSv. On a daily basis, we are exposed to more cosmic background radiation than we are to dental x-ray radiation, with most people exposed to around 1.5 to 3.5mSv of background radiation each year.

Effects of Radiation on the Human Body

Exposure to high levels of radiation can cause damage to our cells and DNA, potentially leading to health issues like cancer. At very high levels, ionizing radiation can cause extreme health problems such as radiation poisoning, birth defects, and death. However, the amount of radiation required to cause these issues is far higher than that used in most medical procedures, including dental X-rays.

The amount of radiation we’re exposed to during dental X-rays is quite low. In fact, a set of bitewing X-rays exposes us to roughly the same amount of radiation as a short airplane flight. So, while there is a risk associated with radiation exposure, it’s generally considered minimal in the context of dental X-rays.

The long-term risks of dental X-rays are also relatively low, especially when compared to their benefits. While repeated exposure to ionizing radiation can increase the risk of cancer over time, the chances are still quite small. Remember, dentists are aware of these risks and take precautions to minimize your exposure.

So, are dental X-rays safe? In general, they are. Of course, if you were to receive dental X-rays every single day, the cumulative exposure could become problematic. That’s why technicians always leave the room when the X-ray machine is in use.

While it’s not impossible for a dental X-ray to cause a serious DNA mutation, it’s very unlikely for the average patient. Additionally, wearing lead vests and thyroid collars can further reduce any potential side effects. These items protect sensitive organs from the radiation, so while they may be uncomfortable, they are definitely worth using.

Are Dental X-Rays Safe During Pregnancy?

When it comes to dental X-rays and pregnancy, many people including myself wonder if it’s safe for the developing baby. It is generally recommended that pregnant women avoid any unnecessary X-rays, including dental X-rays, until after their baby is born. 

However, according to the American Pregnancy Association, dental X-rays do not typically expose the unborn baby to significant levels of radiation. This means that dental X-rays are likely one of the safest types of X-rays for a pregnant woman to undergo. 

Additionally, the American Dental Association and other reputable organizations consider dental X-rays safe for pregnant women. Although low birth weight is a well-documented side effect of in utero dental X-ray exposure, it is believed that the risk of gum disease during pregnancy is higher than any potential harm to the baby. 

Ultimately, the decision about whether or not to undergo dental X-rays during pregnancy should be made by the mother in consultation with her medical professionals. Every case is unique, and for some women, the benefits of dental X-rays may outweigh the risks, while for others, they may not.

Are Dental X-Rays Safe for Children?

Now let’s address a common concern among parents – are dental X-rays safe for our little ones? Children’s developing bodies can be more sensitive to radiation, so it’s essential to strike the right balance between the benefits and risks.

As a parent, it’s natural to worry about the potential risks of dental X-rays for your child. However, it’s important to remember that dental X-rays play a critical role in monitoring your child’s oral health and development. They can help detect cavities, track the progress of incoming teeth, and identify issues that may require orthodontic intervention.

While children are more sensitive to radiation, the levels used in dental X-rays are still quite low. Furthermore, dentists take extra precautions with children, such as using lead aprons and thyroid collars, and adhering to the ALARA principle which I’ll discuss below. Ultimately, the benefits of early diagnosis and treatment often outweigh the minimal risks associated with dental X-rays for children.

Pediatric dentists follow specific guidelines when it comes to X-rays for children. These guidelines, established by organizations like the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD), help ensure that X-rays are used appropriately and safely. Here are some key points:

  1. Dental X-rays should be tailored to each child’s individual needs and risk factors.
  2. Dentists should use the lowest possible radiation dose to obtain the necessary information.
  3. The frequency of X-rays should be based on the child’s oral health, age, and risk for dental problems.
  4. Dentists should use lead aprons and thyroid collars to protect sensitive areas of the child’s body.

By following these guidelines, dentists can ensure that dental X-rays are safe and beneficial for children, helping to maintain their oral health and catch potential problems early on.

Dental X-Ray Safety Precautions

These are some of the steps dentists take to ensure dental X-rays are as safe as possible:

The ALARA principle

Dentists follow the ALARA principle – As Low As Reasonably Achievable – when it comes to radiation exposure. This means they aim to use the lowest possible radiation dose to obtain the necessary diagnostic information. By adhering to the ALARA principle, dentists minimize the risks associated with dental X-rays.

Lead aprons and thyroid collars

You’ve probably worn a heavy lead apron during an X-ray before. These aprons, along with thyroid collars, are designed to shield sensitive areas of our bodies from unnecessary radiation exposure. They’re especially important for pregnant women and children, who may be more sensitive to radiation.

Digital X-rays for reduced radiation

Many dental offices now use digital X-rays, which require significantly less radiation than traditional film-based X-rays. Digital X-rays are not only faster and more convenient but also better for the environment since they don’t require chemicals for processing.

Dental X-ray

Frequency of Dental X-Rays: How Often Should You Get Them?

You might be wondering, “How often should I get dental X-rays?” The answer depends on several factors, including your age, dental health, and risk for dental problems. 

If you’re an adult, the frequency of dental X-rays varies depending on your oral health and dental history. If you currently don’t have any dental issues and are at a low risk of developing problems, you may only need X-rays every two to three years. 

However, if you have a history of tooth decay or gum disease, you may require X-rays more frequently – about once a year. Patients with ongoing dental problems or a high risk of developing issues may need X-rays even more often, sometimes every 6 months or as recommended by their dentist.

For children, the frequency of dental X-rays also depends on their age, dental health, and risk factors.Children with no dental issues and a low risk of developing problems may not need X-rays until their permanent teeth begin to emerge, typically around age 6.

Once permanent teeth are present, children with low risk may only need X-rays every 1-2 years.Children with a higher risk of dental issues, such as a history of tooth decay, orthodontic concerns, or other oral health problems, may require more frequent X-rays as determined by their pediatric dentist.

Keep in mind that these are general guidelines, and your dentist will determine the most appropriate X-ray schedule based on your unique circumstances.

​​How to Prepare for Your Dental X-Ray Appointment

Dental X-rays are a routine part of dental care, but if you’re new to the process or have some anxiety about the procedure, it’s essential to know what to expect and how to prepare. Let’s go over what happens during a dental X-ray and some tips to help you feel more at ease.

What to expect during a dental X-ray procedure

Dental X-ray procedures are typically quick and painless. Here’s a general overview of what you can expect:

  1. The dental hygienist or assistant will position you in the dental chair, ensuring you’re comfortable.
  2. They’ll place a lead apron and thyroid collar on you to protect your body from any scattered radiation.
  3. Depending on the type of X-ray being taken, they’ll insert a small sensor or film holder in your mouth to capture the images.
  4. You’ll be asked to bite down on the sensor or holder to keep it in place while the X-ray is taken.
  5. The dental professional will step out of the room or behind a protective barrier and take the X-ray.
  6. This process will be repeated for each required image, which usually takes just a few minutes in total.
  7. After the X-rays are taken, your dentist will review the images and discuss any findings or concerns with you.

Tips for easing anxiety before dental X-rays

If you’re feeling anxious about your dental X-ray appointment, there are a few things you can do to help calm your nerves. One of the first things you should do is educate yourself about the process. Familiarize yourself with the procedure, as understanding the process can help alleviate any fears or misconceptions.

It’s also a good idea to communicate with your dental team. Share your concerns with your dentist or dental hygienist. They can answer your questions, provide reassurance, and take extra care to make you feel comfortable during the procedure.

During the procedure, you can take small steps to distract yourself. Deep, slow breaths can help lower your heart rate and relax your muscles. Listening to calming music or an enegaging podcast throughout the procedure can help take your mind off any anxiety. In addition, imagine yourself in a relaxing, happy place while you’re in the dental chair. 

By understanding what to expect during a dental X-ray procedure and using these tips to ease any anxiety, you’ll be better prepared for your appointment and can focus on maintaining your oral health.

How to Minimize Your Exposure to Dental X-Ray Radiation

dental xray

Now that we’ve explored the safety of dental X-rays and what to expect during the procedure, let’s discuss some steps you can take to minimize your exposure to radiation while still reaping the benefits of these essential diagnostic tools.

Open communication with your dentist is crucial. Don’t hesitate to ask questions about the need for an X-ray, the risks involved, and the safety measures in place. By keeping an open dialogue, you can ensure that you and your dentist are on the same page when it comes to your dental health and X-ray exposure.

Prevention is the best medicine! By maintaining regular dental checkups and practicing good oral hygiene, you can help prevent dental issues from arising in the first place. This, in turn, may reduce the need for X-rays, further minimizing your radiation exposure.

Everyone’s dental health is different, and some individuals may be at a higher risk for dental problems than others. Factors like age, diet, and genetics can all play a role. By understanding your risk factors and discussing them with your dentist, you can work together to develop a personalized dental care plan that minimizes the need for X-rays while still addressing your specific needs.

Dental X-Ray Alternatives and Their Limitations

While dental X-rays are a valuable diagnostic tool, you might be wondering if there are any alternatives that don’t involve radiation. Let’s take a look at a few alternative imaging methods and their limitations.

Intraoral cameras

Intraoral cameras are small, handheld devices that capture high-resolution images of your teeth and gums. They can help dentists identify issues like tooth decay and gum disease. However, unlike X-rays, intraoral cameras can’t see beneath the surface or through tooth enamel, so they may not be as effective in detecting hidden problems.


Transillumination is a technique that uses a bright light to highlight areas of concern in teeth. By shining the light through a tooth, dentists can detect changes in the tooth structure that may indicate decay. While transillumination can be useful for detecting some dental issues, it’s not as effective as X-rays for identifying issues below the gum line or within the tooth’s structure.

Ultrasound imaging

Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to create images of the teeth and jaw. This technology is still in its early stages for dental applications and has limitations compared to X-rays. For instance, ultrasound imaging may not provide the same level of detail or be able to detect all types of dental issues. Additionally, the technique requires specialized equipment and training, making it less widely available than dental X-rays.

Overall, while these alternative imaging methods can be helpful in certain situations, they often have limitations when compared to dental X-rays. Dentists will typically consider the patient’s specific needs and weigh the benefits and risks of each imaging method before deciding on the best approach for diagnosis and treatment.

Weighing the Benefits and Risks of Dental X-rays

As we’ve seen, dental X-rays are an essential tool in maintaining our oral health. They can help detect problems early, preventing complications and promoting overall wellbeing. While there are risks associated with radiation exposure, these risks are generally considered minimal when weighed against the benefits of dental X-rays. 

Ultimately, the decision to undergo dental X-rays is a personal one that should be based on your individual needs and risk factors. By communicating openly with your dentist, staying informed about your dental health, and maintaining regular checkups and preventative care, you can make the best choices for your oral wellbeing while minimizing your exposure to radiation. 

Remember, knowledge is power – and that includes knowing about the safety of dental X-rays!


What started out as an intention to protect my family from the dangers of EMF radiation has turned into a mission to share my research with as many people as possible. Despite the ever-increasing threat of EMF, there are many ways to keep ourselves protected. Knowledge is power!

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